The internet ships binary information. An information in this case data is made of bits. Bits can be described as an opposite object example on/ off, yes/ no, 1/0.


A bit (short for binary digit) is the smallest unit of data in a computer. A bit has a single binary value, either 0 or 1


8 Bits 1 Byte
1024 Byte 1 Kilo Byte
1024 Kilo Byte 1 Mega Byte
1024 Mega Byte 1 Giga byte


A movie file transferred from one computer to another computer on the internet approximately encoded to 3 to 4 gigabyte of information. It does not matter whether it is file, music, movie, everything on the internet is encoded to bits and these bits travel from one computer to another on the internet. How bits are getting transferred from one point to another is also a very interesting concept. Before moving forward Let’s discuss how zeros and ones get transferred from one point to another in an internet network


It’s not like that we are physically sending ones and zeros to one computer to another. It’s like sending a signal from one place to another which means ones and which means zeros. Let’s discuss a special scenario: Let’s assume you and your friend sitting in your room have a connected electric wire with bulb and switch at both the end as you see in the picture. If we both agree on that light on means 1 and light off means 0 then we have a system to send information in the form of bits to each other.


This system has a problem in sending same bits more than once in a row. In simple how to send more than one zero or one in a row. This problem was solved by introducing a clock and both of us will agree on to send one bit per second. Now to send five zero in a row keep the light off for five seconds similarly keep the light on for 4 seconds to send four ones in a row.

This way we can send information in the form of bits through electricity. Nowadays bits can be transferred through

  • –Electricity
  • –Fiber Optics
  • –Radio wave

The three different term that is being used to measure network.

  • –Bandwidth
  • –Bit Rate
  • –Latency




Data travels across the internet in packets. Each packet can carry a maximum of 1,500 bytes. Around these packets is a wrapper with a header and a footer. The information contained in the wrapper tells computers what kind of data is in the packet, how it fits together with other data, where the data came from and the data’s final destination.

The data more than 1500 bytes or the packet limit can be divided into more than one packets. Each packet takes different routes and reaches the destination at the same time or at a slightly different time. At the destination, all the packets assemble together to produce the data that was sent.

The packet route from source to destination is usually vary and can be changed according to the situation and condition of the network. It’s like traveling from one place to another place by bike. we change the route according to the traffic and the road condition. As part of the internet protocol, each router keeps track of multiple paths for sending packets and it chooses the cheapest available path for each piece of data based on destination IP address.

The Cheapest here does not mean cost but the time and non-technical factor such as politics and relationship between the companies.

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