IP address And DNS –
An internet is a network in which every computer on the network is connected to each other like every home is connected to every other home through the road network. How to distinguish one computer from other on the internet? To distinguish a computer from each other a unique address (Internet Address) is provided to every computer on the internet, that we call it IP address or IP. The DNS will provide the human easily recognizable name to IP address. The IP address and DNS is the basic building block on the internet network for the unique identification and giving a human-readable name to a server.
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is an alphanumeric label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the internet protocol for communication.
IP address version –
- IP version 4 (IPv4)
- IP version 6 (IPv6)
IPv4 is the most widely used version of the Internet Protocol. It defines IP address in a 32-bit format, which looks like XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX”
IPv6 is the next generation or the latest version of the internet protocol. It defines IP address in a 128-bit format, which looks like FE80:0000:0000:0000:0202:B3FF:FE1E:8329
Data Name Server – DNS –
Humans are very good at reading and remembering names whereas computers are built to work on the number. As explained above, Address on the internet is like 192.168.1.1 (in IPv4) or more newer alphanumeric IP addresses such as 2400:cb00:2048:1::c629:d7a2 (in IPv6). we humans find it very difficult to remember these complicated number. To bridge this gap DNS or data name server is being used.
The process of DNS resolution or the work of DNS to convert domain name/Hostname (www.travelndtech.com) to the corresponding IP address (192.168.1.1).
Domain Name Servers (DNS) are the Internet’s equivalent of a phone book. They maintain a directory of domain names and translate them to Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. This is necessary because, although domain names are easy for people to remember, computers or machines, access websites based on alphanumeric IP addresses.
How DNS Works –
When we type domain like www.travelndtech.com in the browser the browser sends a request to DNS server to fetch the IP address of the domain. The DNS will resolve the domain name with the IP address and then you will fetch the page from the travelndtech.com server.
Technically you don’t need to type travelndtech.com to retrieve the travel and tech web page, you can just type the IP address instead if you already knew what the IP address was. Since we are not in costumed to memorizing or dealing with number especially if there are millions of website on the internet, we just type the domain name and let DNS to convert IP address for us.
The process to convert the domain name to the IP address involves the following main process carried out by different DNS server.
- As soon as we type a domain name in the browser. The browser looks into the browser cache for the IP address. If it did not find the IP address it queries the ISP server to look for IP address
- The ISP server (Resolver in the case ) looks in its cache to find the IP address of the domain. If it finds the IP address then it redirects the request to the address to fetch the page if not it will request the Root server for the IP address.
- If the root server is not going to know what the IP address is but it will provide the information on where to find the IP address that we call it TLD Nameserver. TLD server or Top level domain server store the address information for the top-level domain such as .com .net .org etc.… The TLD server did not know the IP address of the domain so it will direct the resolver to the final destination Authoritative nameserver.
- The authoritative nameserver is the final stop to fetch the IP address. If it gets the request it will respond with IP address to the resolver. The resolver now requests the address to fetch the page and gives the response to the browser.